Flexess: Energy transition through electromobility

In the course of the energy transition, the energy industry is undergoing a comprehensive transformation through the integration of renewable energies into the power system. To ensure the success of the transition to renewable energies in the areas of electricity, heat and mobility, efficient flexibility in the feed-in and withdrawal of electrical power plays a crucial role. The project partners of the flexess project worked together to develop and implement solution approaches for a flexible and sustainable energy supply.

Flexibility in the energy transition

The household case study was dedicated to exploring the potential for flexibility in existing single-family and multifamily homes as well as new construction. Possible flexibility measures include the use of photovoltaic systems, battery storage and heat pumps in conjunction with local energy management.

In the commercial, retail and services sector, the focus was particularly on the potential of existing air-conditioning systems in supermarkets and other chain stores to exploit flexibility.

The industrial sector also offers considerable flexibility potential due to its high energy requirements and the extensive control options for processes and machines. The use of revenues from self-generation and the possibility of storage can create additional economic incentives to exploit flexibility potential.

The electromobility case study specifically addressed the potential of flexibility in the context of potential applications for vehicle fleets, such as use as flexible energy storage.

The potential analysis shows a cross-sector potential for energy flexibilization of approx. 25 GW / 35 TWh/a. In perspective, this can amount to about 20-40 GW / 27-53 TWh/a in 2030, depending on the scenario. The regulatory framework and economic incentives were also considered.


July 2019 until December 2022


Development of solutions for exploiting flexibility potentials in the electricity, heat and mobility transition, as recommendations for action for the energy industry


Identification of savings potentials and framework conditions

Flexibility potential in electromobility

In this study, the theoretical flexibility potential through the use of electric vehicles in combination with charging stations (AC, DC) was analyzed.


The number of electric vehicles in Germany is currently growing exponentially, but at a comparatively low level. Based on legal framework conditions, the supply of electric vehicles and charging points, and customer demand, this growth trend is expected to continue in the future. It is therefore extremely sensible to include the potential for energy flexibilization by integrating electric vehicles into the energy system.

Electric vehicles

  • The share of commercially used vehicles is 48.3%, including a penetration of 1.3% e-vehicles. With an average energy content of 40 kWh per passenger car, this results in an energy potential of 2.57 GWh. The total energy potential for electric cars thus amounts to 5.39 GWh (2.82 GWh of which in the private sector).
  • The penetration of e-buses is only 0.5%. The energy content of the batteries installed in these buses varies between approximately 200 and 550 kWh, resulting in an energy potential of 7.5 MWh.
  • In 2020, around 25,000 electrically powered trucks were registered in Germany, corresponding to 0.7% of all registrations. The energy potential for trucks thus amounts to 2.44 GWh.

For all vehicle classes, a strong increase in both the absolute number of electric vehicles and the relative share of all registered vehicles is expected in the future. Electric vehicles are expected to account for between 35% and 76% of new passenger car registrations in 2030.

Charging stations

A distinction is made between AC charging stations and DC charging stations. The supply of suitable charging infrastructure must be expanded to a similar extent as the vehicles. The goal was therefore to reduce the charging time to 10-15 minutes to enable fast and practical use. Currently, the possible charging capacities of the vehicles are still below those of the charging stations. However, with increasing system voltages of up to 800 V for on-board networks, this gap will be closed in the future. Current developments suggest a maximum charging power of up to 450 kW.

Project partner

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Conclusion on the energy transition and electromobility

Currently, the greatest penetration of electric vehicles is found in commercial passenger vehicles. Cars also have the greatest energy potential, while trucks have the greatest power potential. This compares with final energy consumption by the transport sector of 751 TWh, of which 12 TWh is in the form of electricity. The share of electricity in the final energy demand of the transport sector is expected to increase significantly in the future. Based on trends in registration numbers and the installation of charging points, as well as the development of the energy content of vehicle batteries, it can be assumed that the energy and power potential from electric vehicles will increase significantly in the future, both in the commercial and private sectors. However, much work is still needed with regard to the relevant regulatory framework, for example in the area of technical regulations, electricity trading or building regulations.

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The central questions surrounding electromobility in vehicle fleets

The research project was divided into a total of five thematic blocks, which answered various questions:

  • What are the legal challenges of collaborative fleet use?
  • How can certain contractual arrangements help ensure smooth operation of the shared fleet and charging infrastructure?
  • What billing and process patterns can support the goals of the project?
  • What applications and interfaces must a booking platform for fleets and charging infrastructure include?
  • How can the integration of already existing IT systems and data of the different companies take place in one platform?
  • How can forecast data be generated in a dynamic environment?
  • How can charging and payment models be developed to encourage vehicle users to charge electric vehicles during off-peak hours?
  • How can it be ensured that the legal requirements regarding logging of roaming and tariffing are met?
  • How can vehicle demand be determined at peak times?
  • What results can be obtained to increase the degree of electrification?
  • How can usage patterns and daily driving distances be transferred from conventional vehicles to electric vehicles?
  • How can the utilization rate of the fleet be increased through shared use?
  • Which measures for operational safety and risk considerations can be derived?
  • What are the requirements for the booking and billing platform so that it can be used across companies?
  • What insights into fleet software failure management can be gained?
  • How can possible contingency models be made economically viable?
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